India’s history dates back from the early beginnings of human civilization. Ancient India’s civilization remained a mystery, not like the dynasties of China and Egypt. The country is situated on continent Asia, in its south part, and it got the name from a river, called the Indus River.
Some archaeological excavations discovered artifacts which were utilized by the early human beings, which include stone tools, a suggestion of a high early time for technology and human habitation in this area. Although Egypt and Mesopotamia’s civilizations were long recognized due to their famous contributions to the civilization in general, India was usually overlooked, particularly by the West, although it has rich culture and history. Here, we will talk about the inventions of ancient Indians.
What are the nine inventions of the ancient Indian people?
1. Surgical instruments for plastic surgery, utilized by Sushruta.
In fact, Sushruta is one of the primary surgeons in recorded history, about 600 B.C. and he is said to be the first person that described plastic surgery. He lived almost 150 years prior to Hippocrates, and he vividly described plastic surgery’s basic principles, in his popular ancient paperwork called ‘Sushruta Samhita’ somewhere in 600 B.C.
This treatise, which it belongs to the oldest one in this world which deals with surgery, indicates Sushruta has probably been the first ever existing surgeon, who performed plastic surgeries. The paper also presents historical evidence into the different contributions he had when it comes to plastic surgery.
2. The cultivation of cotton.
Ancient Greeks were wearing animal skins, without being aware of the cotton. However, Indians started the practice of cultivating cotton somewhere in the 5th and 4th millennium B.C.E., that time in the so-called Indus Valley Civilization. This word spread along the Mediterranean or even far beyond.
One of the earliest proofs of the use of cotton in India was found at Rakhigarhi and Mehrgarh, sites at which cotton threads were found to be preserved in some copper beads. The findings date from the Neolithic period. The Indus Valley Civilization covered some parts of northwestern India and modern eastern Pakistan, somewhere between 3300 – 1300 B.C. After that, the cotton industry of Indus was excellently developed, and certain methods which were utilized in cotton fabrication and spinning were later used until India’s industrialization. Later, between 2000 – 1000 B.C. the cotton was widespread all over India.
The ancient Indians are also said to be the inventors of the primary shampoo, using traditional herbs. In fact, ‘shampoo’ is a word which originates from the Sanskrit word ‘champu,’ meaning ‘head massage.’ Initially, it has been utilized as oil for a head massage at the time of the Mughal Empire, somewhere around 1762. As the years passed, it became a shampoo.
The primary version of this board game is believed to have its origins in India, somewhere in the 6th century B.C. In fact, chess has developed out of the Chaturanga, an ancient strategy board game, which has been developed at the time of the Indian Gupta Empire, somewhere in the 6th century A.D. This game then spread westwards in Europe and Persia.
5. Games with cards.
These games originate from India too. During ancient periods, it was called Krida-patram, which meant ‘painted rags for playing.’ In fact, it has been the favorite pastime of the Indians at that time. The game was patronized, particularly by the nobility and royalty. It was recorded that the game was played in Utkala, Rajputana, Deccan, Kashyapa, and Nepal.
6. Snakes and ladders.
This is another board game from ancient times, which is today seen as a classic around the world. The game originates from India, being a part of the dice board games which included pachisi and Gyan chauper. In the ancient Indian times, the Snakes and Ladders game was called Moksha Patam. It has been invented in the country as the game of morals. After that, the game appeared in England and USA, in 1943, where it was introduced by the game pioneer named Milton Bradley.
Buttons, and generally button-like things and objects, which are utilized as seals or ornaments, were discovered in the previously mentioned Indus Valley Civilization, at the time of the phase Kot Yaman, between 2800 and 2600 B.C.E. sites of Bronze Age in China between 2000 and 1500 B.C.E., and also Ancient Rome.
The buttons which were used for ornamental aims were made of seashells. Some of them were even carved into several geometric shapes, with holes into them, in order to attach them on clothing, using thread.
In an archaeological study from 2001, in which two Pakistan men were studied, it has been discovered that those from the Indus Valley Civilizations had some knowledge on proto-dentistry. After that, in 2006, there was an announcement which said that the earliest evidence for human teeth drilling was discovered in Mehrgarh. These discoveries point to the Indian tradition of proto-dentistry.
9. Flush toilets.
Such toilets have been used for the first time in the Indus Valley Civilization. They extended in a lot of homes after that, and they were linked to a modern sewage mechanism. This civilization was even notable for its hydraulic engineering.
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